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An analysis of the materials examined in this paper revealed a number of features typical of this territory in Eastern Bokhara, Tajiks were settled in big groups and comprised a majority of the population. This was true of the Upper Zeravshan, too. In other historical and cultural regions in the area between the Central Asian rivers the Amudarya and the Syrdarya Tajiks alternated with other peoples (mainly Uzbeks) or were interspersed in insignificant numbers amid the foreign surroundings.

Among the Uzbeks living on the territory under examination semi-nomadic groups retaining the traditions of the tribal structure were predominant.

The early groups of semi-nomadic Uzbeks, i.., the descendants of the nomadic part of the Turks of Mavera an-Nahr, the Tokharistan Qarluqs and the Moghols, represented a nume-rous and relatively compactly settled part of the population. This kind of settling of early tribes, notably, the descendants of the nomadic part of the Mavera an-Nahr Turks, could be observed in Ferghana also, while in other regions between the Amudarya and the Syrdarya they were an insignificant fraction.

In the beginning of the 1900s' the above-mentioned groups of early tribes retained their ethnic self-consciousness and names they had given themselves: the Turk, the Karluk, the Mogul, as well as the original traits of their culture. Therefore the surrounding population regarded each 01 these groups as an independent ethnic unit.

From this follows that if the nomadic Turks, the descendants of the Mavera an-Nahr Turks, even early this century, when a basic part of them settled, a part was incorporated in the Dashtiqipchaq Uzbeks and their descendants and some groups left Mavera an-Nahr (left with Babur or moved to Mogulistan and other adjacent countries), r rather numerous and preserved their specific features in their life and culture, in the 15th century they undoubtedly comprised a considerable part of the Turk population of Mavera an-Nahr. Ethnographic data disprove the opinion of some historians (R. G. Mukminova, for one [230, 76]) about the nomads and seminomads in Mavera an-Nahr in the 15th century being scanty.

There was a certain pattern in the settlement of individual ethnic groups in Eastern Bokhara: mountaneous regions were completely inhabited by Tajiks of the Kulobi, Romiti, Kukhistoni and Varzobi groups (only in some places Uzbeks of the earlier groups of the Taghchi, Turks and Qarlugs were interspersed with them); wide river valleys, lowlands and steppes were populated by Uzbeks of the Dashtiqipchaq origin; at the junction of these two regions and two ethnic groups lay a mixed region inhabited by the Indigenous settled population of cultured oases and semi-nomadic Uzbeks.

In the majority of regions of the territory under review the local population called the former groups the Chagatai. This was also the name they had given themselves. The overwhelming majority of the Chaghatai was comprised of Tajiks and the minority were Uzbeks. Among the semi-nomadic Uzbeks of this zone early groups, especially Turks, predominated. Here in the valleys and foothills the biggest villages and towns were situated whose indigenous inhabitants were the Chaghatai. They were mainly engaged in intensive irrigated farming, fruit and grape growing, in particular, as well as various crafts. Therefore the term viloyati (an inhabitant of big cultured oasis) denoted, first and foremost, the Chaghatai.

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